Sunday, August 30, 2009

Walking on DC

Hey Folks,
today I took the Metro from Gaithersburg to Washington DC. It was a 40 minutes long trip, most of it underground so quite boring but it's still the best way to go in DC. Red line, exit "Metro Central", few miles of walk and here we go.

The Capitol and the Lincoln Memorial, two of my favorite DC monuments.

Of course around National Mall there are lots of free (or kind of) museums and stuff I love to visit. Today I had not so much time, but next saturday I wanna visit some of them . If you (reader) are living in DC and are so kind to suggest something to visit I'll appreciate.

Thursday, August 20, 2009

Arduino Web Server

Hacking means find the right way to compromise a system, often software is not enough and sometime the attacker needs a hardware trick to compromise the whole system. This is the reason why I'm studying the Arduino board. Some of the real projects that I'm doing cannot be published (so far), but some else can .
Using a simple Arduino 2009, an Ethernet shield and a common LCD is possible to make an interesting small and portable web-server. Following the code with a short descriptions.

What you need is to download and to install (/hardware/library/) the following libraries:

// Written by Marco Ramilli
#include //Ethernet Library by Arduino
#include "Dhcp.h" //DhCP Library
#include //Default String Library
#include // String Library, you have to download it from Arduino web-site
#include // Second String Library, you have to download it from Arduino web-site
#include //Liquid Crystal Output

Note1: I've used DHCP library even if a web server should have a static IP ... ...
Note2: I've divided everything in classes, in such way you can divide the code in multiple files.

//defining Pages CLass
class Pages
Pages(char *header, char *pageStart, char *body, char *pageEnd) { _header = header; _pageStart = pageStart; _body = body; _pageEnd = pageEnd; }
char *getHeader(){return _header;}
char *getPageStart(){return _pageStart;}
char *getBody(){return _body;}
char *getPageEnd(){return _pageEnd;}
char *getPage(){strcat(_header,_pageStart); strcat(_header,_body); strcat(_header,_pageEnd); return _header; }
void appendToBody(char *stringToAppend){strcat(_body,stringToAppend); }

char *_header;
char *_pageStart;
char *_body;
char *_pageEnd;
// defining Networkconfig Class
class NetworkConfig
NetworkConfig(byte *mac, byte *ip){_mac = mac; _ip = ip;}
NetworkConfig(byte *mac, byte *ip, byte *mask, byte *gw, byte *dhcps, byte *dns) {_mac = mac; _ip = ip; _mask = mask; _gw = gw; _dhcps = dhcps; _dns = dns; }
void setIP(byte *ip){_ip = ip;}
void setMAC(byte *mac){_mac = mac;}
void setMASK(byte *mask){_mask = mask;}
void setGW(byte *gw){_gw = gw;}
void setDHCPS(byte *dhcps){_dhcps = dhcps;}
void setDNS(byte *dns){_dns = dns;}

byte *getIP(){return _ip;}
byte *getMAC(){return _mac;}
byte *getMASK(){return _mask;}
byte *getGW(){return _gw;}
byte *getDHCPS(){return _dhcps;}
byte *getDNS(){return _dns;}
byte *_ip;
byte *_mac;
byte *_mask;
byte *_gw;
byte *_dhcps;
byte *_dns;

Of curse, if no DHCP is detected, the server wanna be on .

//Defult Network Configuration instances
byte ip[] = { 192, 168, 1, 50 };
byte mac[] = { 0xDE, 0xAD, 0xBE, 0xEF, 0xFE, 0xED };
NetworkConfig defaultconf(mac, ip);

Here some useful cost to define.

#define maxLength 25 // preventing BoF
#define serverPort 80 // listening port
String inString = String(maxLength);
Server server(serverPort);
int val, p;
LiquidCrystal lcd(8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2); //Declare a LDC display, for ping look over

Here the real interesting code... ...

void setup() // before going on, we need some stuff
Serial.begin(9600); // just for debugginh
lcd.begin(1,8); // configure LCD display size (raw, col)
Ethernet.begin(defaultconf.getMAC(), defaultconf.getIP() );
void loop()
Client client = server.available(); //Gets a client that is connected to the server and has data available for reading
if (client) {
boolean current_line_is_blank = true; // html protocol ....
while (client.connected()) {

if (client.available()) { // client is sending something
p = 0; //lets see if the client wants initial page
char c =; //reading whatever the client sends
if (inString.length() < maxLength) { // currently there is no way to make it dinamic
Serial.println(inString); //Only To DEBUG !
if (c == '\n' && current_line_is_blank) { //means the client has stopped to end us chars
if (inString.contains("?")) { // means the client wanna communicate with us
int Pos_p = inString.indexOf("p");
p = atoi(inString.substring((Pos_p+2), (Pos_p+4)));

This case is useful to figure out POST and/or GET actions.

switch (p){
// due to BoF bug, actually is not possible to write index.getPage(). But late versions of Arduino ... ... ...
case 0:
client.println(index.getHeader() );
client.println(index.getPageStart() );
client.println(index.getBody() );
client.println(index.getPageEnd() );

case 1:
client.println(page1.getHeader() );
client.println(page1.getPageStart() );
client.println(page1.getBody() );
client.println(page1.getPageEnd() );
case 2:
client.println(page2.getHeader() );
client.println(page2.getPageStart() );
client.println(page2.getBody() );
client.println(page2.getPageEnd() );
client.println(index.getHeader() );
client.println(index.getPageStart() );
client.println(index.getBody() );
client.println(index.getPageEnd() );


if (c == '\n') {
current_line_is_blank = true;
} else if (c != '\r') {
current_line_is_blank = false;
inString = "";

Here how dchp library works, thank to Jordan Terrel

//DHCP client
int getNC(){
int result = Dhcp.beginWithDHCP(mac);
if (result == 1){
byte buffer[6];
Serial.print("ip address: ");
printArray(&Serial, ".", buffer, 4, 10);
Serial.print("subnet mask: ");
printArray(&Serial, ".", buffer, 4, 10);
Serial.print("gateway ip: ");
printArray(&Serial, ".", buffer, 4, 10);
Serial.print("dhcp server ip: ");
printArray(&Serial, ".", buffer, 4, 10);
Serial.print("dns server ip: ");
printArray(&Serial, ".", buffer, 4, 10);
return 1;
Serial.print("No DHCP, Running in default conf");
return 0;

Here how LCD library works


void printonlcd(String text){

if (text.length() <= 7){

}else{ // n with this lcd
int index =0;
while (index >=0){
for (int positionl = 0; positionl < 8; positionl ++){
for (int positionr = 0; positionr < 8; positionr ++){

//printArray funciton
void printArray(Print *output, char* delimeter, byte* data, int len, int base){
char buf[10] = {0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0};
for(int i = 0; i < len; i++)
if(i != 0)
output->print(itoa(data[i], buf, base));

That's all !
Hope to be useful .

Back From Paris, lot of stuff ...

Hey guys,
I'm back from Paris.
During my staying in the "romantic capital", lot of things happened.
2) Twitter being used as botnet command channe.
3) Linux NULL pointer dereference due to incorrect proto_ops initializations.
4) Good tips how to secure your OpenSSH server
5) Sequoia e-voting machine commandeered by clever attack
And so forth...
Actually I'm going to re-prepare my luggage, Direction Washington D.C. As I have already mentioned before, I'm going to work for NIST Security department.

Monday, August 10, 2009

W La France !

Finally after a year of hard work, I take my two weeks off :D

I've been in Paris 2 times before, but it's so relaxing....
See you in Washington D.C in two weeks !

Friday, August 7, 2009

Everybody is vulnerable to DDOS

Distributed Denial Of Service, it's impossible to prevent.
What you can do, is to put an upper bound limit which doesn't prevent DDOS. Let's say that your system answers up to 20000 requests, let's say that the attacker may perform 20000 connections, and let one user wanna use your service. That's all, the only true user can't use your connection because 20000 fake users are filling your system. I've used the word "system" because DDOS might attack your band-W or your hardware (server memory, server processor, and so forth).
During these days two of the major network and fashion's services has been attacked ! FaceBook and Twitter were down for hours..

Here FaceBook wired paper.
Here Twitter wired paper.

Monday, August 3, 2009

Apple Keyboards Vulnerable to Firmware Hack

Hi Folks,
this is an amazing paper which explains how to hack Apple Keyboard Firmware. Everybody have a microprocessor/microcontroller which aims the device. Microprocessors run operations stored in some *PROM inside the device's box. Replacing the firmware means replacing what the microprocessor does, changing the computational logic.

The concept is simple, a modern Apple keyboard has about 8K of flash memory, and 256 bytes of working ram. For the intelligent, this is more than enough space to have a field day.K. Chen demonstrated the hack to S|A at Defcon today and it worked quite well. You start out by running GDB, and set a breakpoint in Apple's HIDFirmwareUpdaterTool. This tool is meant to update the firmware in human interface devices, hence the name. The tool is run, a breakpoint set, and then you simply cut and paste the new code into the firmware image in memory. That's it.